Impact toughness of an ultrafine-grained (UFG) interstitial-free (IF) steel produced by equal-channel angular extrusion/pressing (ECAE/P) at room temperature was investigated using Charpy impact tests. The UFG IF steel shows an improved combination of strength and impact toughness compared with the corresponding coarse-grained (CG) one. The CG IF steel samples underwent a transition in fracture toughness values with decreasing temperature because of a sudden change in fracture mode from microvoid coalescence (ductile) to cleavage (brittle) fracture. Grain refinement down to the submicron (a parts per thousand 320 nm) levels increased the impact energies in the upper shelf and lower shelf regions, and it considerably decreased the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) from 233 K (-40 A degrees C) for the CG steel to approximately 183 K (-90 A degrees C) for the UFG steel. Also, the sudden drop in DBTT with a small transition range for the CG sample changed to a more gradual decrease in energy for the UFG sample. The improvement in toughness after UFG formation was attributed to the combined effects of grain refinement and delamination and/or separation in the heavily deformed microstructure. Although an obvious change from the ductile fracture by dimples to the brittle fracture by cleavage was recognized at 233 K (-40 A degrees C) for the CG steel, no fully brittle fracture occurred even at 103 K (-170 A degrees C) in the UFG steel.