Investigation of anxiety levels in caregivers who perform clean intermittent catheterization on their children and affecting factors


Neurourology and Urodynamics, vol.43, no.3, pp.738-747, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/nau.25388
  • Journal Name: Neurourology and Urodynamics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS
  • Page Numbers: pp.738-747
  • Keywords: anxiety, caregiver, child, clean intermittent catheterization
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: The study aimed to determine the anxiety levels of caregivers who performed clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) on their children and the factors affecting them. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted between January 6, and May 29, 2023 with caregivers of 42 patients who were followed up by the pediatric nephrology outpatient clinic of a university for CIC. The study data were collected using the “Participant Information Form” and the “State and Trait Anxiety Scale.”. Results: According to the results, of the children included in the study, 73.8% were female, 64.3% were diagnosed with spina bifida (SB), and 76.2% received CIC applications 4–6 times a day. All the caregivers were mothers, and 76.2% received CIC training from a doctor. However, 78.6% of them found the training insufficient, leading them to rely on self-experimentation when applying CIC to their own children. None of the caregivers received information or training on the CIC application from nurses, and there were no home visits or telephone counseling provided after the hospital discharge. The mean score for the state anxiety scale among the caregivers was 45.90 ± 10.57, while the mean score for the trait anxiety scale was 46.92 ± 8.43. Significantly higher mean trait anxiety scores were observed among caregivers with chronic diseases who did not receive training on the CIC application (p < 0.05). Additionally, caregivers of children who experienced 3–4 urinary tract infections (UTIs) within the last 3 months also had significantly higher mean trait anxiety scores (p < 0.05). The mean trait anxiety level scores of caregivers of children who had 3–4 UTIs in the last 3 months were significantly higher (p < 0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that caregivers' lack of training on CIC implementation, having chronic disease, and having frequent UTIs in their children were effective on anxiety levels.