In this study size optimization of large-scale dome structures with dynamic constraints is presented. In the optimal design of these structure, the Jaya algorithm is used to find minimal size of design variables. The design variables are the cross-sectional areas of the steel truss bar elements. To take into account the constraints which are the first five natural frequencies of the structures, the finite element analysis is coded in Matlab programs using eigen values of the stiffness matrix of the dome structures. The Jaya algorithm and the finite elements codes are combined by the help of the Matlab - GUI (Graphical User Interface) programming to carry out the optimization process for the dome structures. To show the efficiency and the advances of the Jaya algorithm, 1180 bar dome structure and the 1410 bar dome structure were tested by taking into the frequency constraints. The optimal results obtained by the proposed algorithm are compared with those given in the literature to demonstrate the performance of the Jaya algorithm. At the end of the study, it is concluded that the proposed algorithm can be effectively used in the optimal design of large-scale dome structures.