Concentrations of eight trace elements (V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were investigated in Posidonia oceanica leaf blades and sediments sampled from 23 stations along the Turkish-Mediterranean Sea coast. Trace element (TE) concentration in both sediment and P. oceanica showed a statistically significant distribution among sampling stations. Most of the TE concentration in samples varied remarkably among stations without a consistent trend. Concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb in the sediment of all of the sampling stations were determined as non-polluted based on the comparison with the sediment quality guideline index. More than a quarter of the sampling stations were found as moderately or heavily polluted for Cr, Ni, and As. The mean TE concentrations found in the sediment sample in the present study were similar to the concentrations reported from the different parts of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. TE concentrations in P. oceanica were generally lower compared to the concentrations in the sediment except for Cd, Zn, and Cu. While a positive correlation was found for Ni concentrations between sediment and P. oceanica samples, negative correlation was detected for V, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, and Cd concentrations between sediment and P. oceanica. The highest bioaccumulation factor in P. oceanica was calculated for Cd. The study area of the present study, especially the western sites (provinces of Antalya and Mugla), hosts millions of tourists annually and under the influence of intensive human activities in summer. Thus, coastal waters are heavily exposed to TEs and significantly positive correlations were detected between the anthropogenic TE pollutants (As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and V) and natural sourced TE (Ni and Cr). Based on our data, the Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey does not present significant levels of Zd, Cd, Cu, and Pb pollution, whereas 65% of the stations were heavily polluted with As. Since As categorized as carcinogenic to humans, seafood sources should be monitored in terms of As concentrations. The current data might be useful in further TE-monitoring studies and TE discharge management strategies.