Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a disease with high mortality that develops in conditions characterized by rapid cell proliferation or after the cytotoxic treatment of malignant diseases. Extraction of intracellular ions and metabolites into the extracellular milieu following cell destruction causes hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, and uremia. The prophylaxis and treatment of TLS includes intensive hydration, diuretics, alkalinization of the urine, allopurinol, and rasburicase. Close electrolyte monitoring of the patients is required. In the patients with acute renal failure (ARF), dialysis can be used either as the first treatment of choice or together with the above-mentioned prophylactic and therapeutic agents. Herein we report the effective treatment of a patient with anuric ARF by means of sequential hemodialysis sessions, in whom TLS developed after chemotherapy; the uric acid level was 71.3 mg/dL, which was considerably greater than the values reported in the literature.