PurposeHemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is defined as any types of acute or chronic inflammation of urinary bladder with several reasons. One of the most common causes of HC is cyclophosphamide (CYP), an effective antineoplastic agent, due to its urotoxic potential. Ambroxol (AMB) is a mucoactive drug that has been used for numerous respiratory diseases. Besides its mucolytic activity, AMB is a potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent that is becoming more attractive for the treatment of several oxidative/inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uroprotective potential of AMB in CYP-induced HC.MethodMale Balb/c mice were pretreated with AMB (30, 70, and 100mg/kg) once a day for 3 consecutive days before HC induction with CYP (300mg/kg). Mesna (30mg/kg;i.p.), only drug in the management of CYP-induced HC, was administered 20min before; 4 and 8h after cystitis induction. The urinary bladders were harvested and evaluated in functional, biochemical, and histological studies.ResultsCYP-induced HC markedly reduced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contractions in detrusor strips and AMB at 100mg/kg caused a significant increase in the responsiveness to ACh. Pretreatment with AMB prevented the elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-) level, reduction of total glutathione (GSH) that induced by CYP. However, treatment with AMB did not improve the bladder weight and some histological parameters.ConclusionThese results suggest that AMB pretreatment could improve CYP-induced HC via antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities.