Evolution of a tourmaline-bearing lawsonite eclogite from the Elekdag area (Central Pontides, N Turkey): evidence for infiltration of slab-derived B-rich fluids during exhumation

Altherr R., Topuz G., Marschall H., Zack T., Ludwig T.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY, vol.148, no.4, pp.409-425, 2004 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


An undated high-pressure low-temperature tectonic melange in the Elekdag. area ( central Pontides, N Turkey) comprises blocks of MORB-derived lawsonite eclogite within a sheared serpentinite matrix. In their outer shells, some of the eclogite blocks contain large ( up to 6 cm) tourmaline crystals. 'Prograde' inclusions in poikiloblastic garnet from a well-preserved eclogite block are lawsonite, epidote/clinozoisite, omphacite, rutile, glaucophane, chlorite, Ba-bearing phengite, minor actinolite, winchite and quartz. In addition, glaucophane, lawsonite and rutile occur as inclusions in omphacite. These inclusion assemblages document the transition from a garnet-lawsonite-epidote-bearing blueschist to a lawsonite eclogite with the peak assemblage garnet + omphacite I + lawsonite + rutile. Peak metamorphic conditions are not well-constrained but are estimated approximately 400 - 430 degreesC and > 1.35 GPa, based on Fe - Mg exchange between garnet and omphacite and the coexistence of lawsonite + omphacite + rutile. During exhumation of the eclogite - serpentinite melange in the hanging wall of a subduction system, infiltration of B-rich aqueous fluids into the rims of eclogite blocks caused retrogressive formation of abundant chlorite, titanite and albite, followed by growth of tourmaline at the expense of chlorite. At the same time, omphacite I (X-Jd = 0.24 - 0.44) became unstable and partially replaced by omphacite II characterized by higher X-Jd (0.35 - 0.48), suggesting a relatively low silica activity in the infiltrating fluid. Apart from Fe-rich rims developed at the contact to chlorite, tourmaline crystals are nearly homogeneous. Their compositions correspond to Na-rich dravite, perhaps with a small amount of excess ( tetrahedral) boron ( similar to 5.90 Si and 3.10 B cations per 31 anions). delta(11) B values range from -2.2 to + 1.7parts per thousand. The infiltrating fluids were most probably derived from subducting altered oceanic crust and sediments.