Zika virus disease: an alarming situation resurfacing on the radar - a short communication

Shariff S., Kantawala B., Hamiidah N., Yadav T., Nazir A., Uwishema O.

ANNALS OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY, no.10, pp.5294-5296, 2023 (ESCI) identifier identifier


Background/introduction:On the 13th of December 2022, a 5-year-old girl from Karnataka, India, tested positive for Zika virus. The first Zika virus was isolated from the serum of a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947. Zika virus was largely dormant for about 70 years before suddenly resurfacing across all of America, from Brazil to the Pacific Islands and is connected to a grouping of microcephaly phenotypes based on a complete virus genome analysis. All of the aforementioned research provides an overview of the migration of this virus from the Americas to continental Africa via mosquitoes. The current study, therefore, aims to evaluate the virologic characteristics, prophylaxis, transmitting mechanisms, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of ZIKV infection in light of the virus's widespread dissemination and deadly nature.Aim:The investigation's findings aim to demonstrate that in order to prevent further outbreaks, there is a national requirement for active epidemiological and entomological observation of Zika.Materials and methods:Data were extracted from academic journals of medicine published in MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Ovid, and Embase inventory databases with a predetermined search strategy. Articles considering the Zika virus and its clinical manifestations, especially neurological, were included.Results:The Zika virus has been declared a public health emergency of global significance by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is of alarming concern that it is now one of the most prevalent infectious diseases associated with birth abnormalities discovered in the past five decades. The onset and accelerated spread of disease to other parts of the world is attributed to the migration of infected hosts and climate change. Rapid laboratory diagnosis, evaluation of serological techniques, and virus isolation are urgently needed, along with newer modalities such as mathematical modeling as prediction devices to curb this issue. Due to its grave neurological manifestations, it is mandated to engineer peptide therapies and a virus-specific vaccination to treat this neurotropic virus.Conclusion:There is currently no vaccination against Zika virus infection. If societies are not adequately prepared, the epidemiological wave will have an impact on the workforce and could pose a serious threat. To alleviate the significant cost on health systems and manage its promotion globally, improved investigation and response activities are needed.