Objectives Biochemical markers play an important role in the early diagnosis of abdominal pain. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of intestinal type fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) in patients with abdominal pathology. Methods This prospective and descriptive study was performed at the University Hospital Emergency Department. Serum I-FABP levels of patients presenting with acute abdominal pain were measured at time of admission and were compared with those of healthy individuals. Results The mean I-FABP level of the 171 patients enrolled in this study was 170.1±543.4 pg/ml, while that of a healthy control group was 61.4±47.4 pg/ml. Although I-FABP levels were higher in the patient group, this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, I-FABP levels of patients with mesenteric ischemia and intra- abdominal mass were significantly higher than those of healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Conclusions I-FABP levels that are evaluated at time of admission in patients presenting with abdominal pain to the emergency department are significantly higher in patients with mesenteric ischemia and intraabdominal mass than are those of healthy individuals.