The purpose of this study is to determine the phonological awareness skills of students starting the first year at primary school. In the study, descriptive model was used as the aim of the study is to present the current situation as it is. The study was carried out with 276 students who started first year at two primary schools and received preschool education in Ankara in 2008-2009 educational year. In the collection, analysis and interpretation of the data obtained in the study, quantitative research method was used. In the study, "Yangin, Erdogan and Erdogan Phonological Awareness Scale" was used to determine the phonological awareness skills of the students. The results of the study indicated that the points students got from phonological awareness skill scale dimension and in total were at medium level. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.