In this paper, the aim was to determine the nonlinear dynamic response of historical masonry armory buildings using a validated finite element model. Eight ambient vibration tests were conducted on the building, using three different measurement test setups to extract the dynamic characteristics using the Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition method. A finite element model was constructed in ANSYS and the dynamic characteristics were obtained numerically. It can be seen that there is a good correlation between the mode shapes, but there are differences in natural frequencies with maximum values of 10.1%, 7.4% and 13.4% for first the three modes. To determine the nonlinear dynamic response, the validated finite element model was analyzed using the Kocaeli earthquake motion. The Drucker-Prager criterion and Willam-Warnke surface were considered for the nonlinear material models. At the end of the analyses, maximum displacements, principal stresses and strains are given in detail using contour diagrams. It is evident that the displacements show an increasing trend from the base to the top point of the building. Stresses occurred on the corners, openings and transition segments. In addition, crack distribution diagrams were drawn up to illustrate the stress accumulation points.