N-acetylcysteine protects testicular tissue against ischemia/reperfusion injury via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis


Kazaz İ. O. , Demir S., Yulug E., Colak F., Bodur A., Yaman S. O. , ...More

Journal of Pediatric Urology, vol.15, no.3, 2019 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2019.02.005
  • Journal Name: Journal of Pediatric Urology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Keywords: Apoptosis, Endoplasmic reticulum stress, Ischemia-reperfusion injury, N-acetylcysteine, Oxidative stress, Testicular torsion-detorsion, ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY, TURKISH PROPOLIS, ETHYL PYRUVATE, EXPERIMENTAL-MODEL, OXIDATIVE STRESS, RAT MODEL, TORSION, DAMAGE

Abstract

© 2019 Journal of Pediatric Urology CompanyBackground: In animal models, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported to play a vital role in mediating ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in certain organs, such as brain, liver, and intestine. However, there are a limited number of studies examining the relationship between ER stress and torsion and detorsion (T/D)-induced testicular injury. Objective: To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on ER-stress and apoptosis in an experimental testicular I/R injury model. Design: A non-blinded experimental study with three arms. Rats were divided into three groups: control group, T/D group, and NAC group. In the pretreatment of the NAC group, 20 mg/kg NAC was given intraperitoneally 30 min before detorsion. Tissue 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The apoptosis levels were evaluated using terminal deoxynucleotide transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end label assay. Results: In T/D group, tissue 4-HNE, GRP78, ATF6, and apoptotic index levels were significantly higher than control group. These increases were significantly reversed with NAC pretreatment. Discussion: There are some potential drugs that have been shown to reduce ER stress in the experimental ischemia model, and it is questioned that these drug candidates can be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of ischemic diseases in the near future. This study was not without limitations. First, the authors applied NAC only 20 mg/kg. In a future study, a dose-dependent assay should be performed to assess the likelihood of an additional testicular protective effect. One limitation of this research is also that in vivo studies cannot be extrapolated to possible effect in clinics. More experiments therefore need to be conducted to extrapolate the study findings to humans. Conclusion: The study results showed that, after testicular torsion (TT), the ER stress–related apoptotic pathway plays a pivotal role in testicular injury. Further studies of other experimental models of TT may prove that NAC is a useful agent as an adjunctive treatment in surgical repair in human cases.[Figure presented]