SANAT TARIHI DERGISI, vol.31, pp.1341-1369, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 31
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.29135/std.1110972
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Art Source, Index Islamicus, Directory of Open Access Journals, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.1341-1369
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The structuring and construction of the ideology of the state were carried out between the years 1923 and 1950, through the Turkish Hearths and Community Centers between the years 1923 and 1950, which is called the Early Republican Period. Ten months after the closure of the Turkish Hearths, Community Houses, which were opened in Ankara on February 19, 1932, and which operated throughout the country by benefiting from the tradition and accumulation of the Turkish Quarries, became the dominant institution of the Republic's cultural and art policies. In a period when the state's culture and art policies were carried out in a programmatic manner through Community Centers, the power of art was used to explain the ideology of the new regime; artists contributed to this process with visuals that reflected the revolution. In particular, journals published by Community Centers operating throughout the country have been effective in the adoption and dissemination of the Republican ideology and revolutionary principles within society. Ankara Halkevi magazine Ulku, which was published in 272 issues between February 1933 and August 1950, is important in terms of its writings in various fields such as Turkish language, revolutions, philosophy, history, literature, music, and art policies written by experts in their fields, reflecting the ideology and revolutionary principles of the Republic, as well as the cover designs that are compatible with these articles. The covers of Ulku magazine, which undertook the written and visual spokesperson of the new regime, included typography, photographs, and artist drawings. The majority of the 89 covers between 16 December 1941 and October 1947, which were the subject of this study, were designed by prominent artists of the Republican period such as Malik Aksel, Turgut Zaim, Seref Akdik, Cemal Tollu, Melahat Ekinci, Arif Kaptan, Refik Epikman, Ercument Kalmik, and Arif Kaptan. On these covers, the images of the Republic such as country views, the lives of Anatolian people, folkloric characteristics, villages and villagers, women, the capital Ankara and its surroundings, Republic leaders, national holiday celebrations, monumental sculpture applications, modern lifestyles, and places have been reflected. Although there are many studies on Ulku magazine, the lack of a study focusing on cover designs has led to the desire to conduct this research. In this article, it will be revealed how the Republic's imagination of creating a new society and life practices was reflected on the covers of journals and how the ideology and revolutionary principles of the Republic in verbal and literary language were translated into visual language through these covers. These cover designs, a visual transfer of the Republican ideology, are important in terms of both serving the purpose of ensuring its place by settling into the collective memory of the people and giving an idea about the artistic understanding of the Single Party period. It is thought that this study will be useful for those who want to make a complete evaluation of the culture and art of the period and the works to be done about their artists.