Biomechanical Behavior of Diamond Lattice Scaffolds Obtained by Two Different Design Approaches with Similar Porosity; A Numerical Investigation with FEM and CFD Analysis


Karaman D., Kahramanzade H.

Proceedings Of The Institution Of Mechanical Engineers Part H-Journal Of Engineering In Medicine, vol.56, no.4, pp.120-135, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 56 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/09544119221091346
  • Journal Name: Proceedings Of The Institution Of Mechanical Engineers Part H-Journal Of Engineering In Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.120-135

Abstract

Scaffolds provide a suitable environment for the bone tissue to maintain its self-healing ability and help new bone-cell formation by creating structures with similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue. In the modeling of the scaffolds, an optimum environment is tried to be provided by changing the geometrical properties of the cell architecture such as porosity, pore size, and specific surface area. For this purpose, different design approaches have been used in studies to change these properties. This study aims to determine whether scaffolds with similar porosities modeled by different design approaches exhibit distinct biomechanical behaviors or not. By using the Diamond lattice architecture, two different design approaches were constituted. The first approach has constant wall thickness and variable cell size, whereas the second approach contains variable wall thickness and constant cell size. The usage of different design approaches affected the amount of specific surface area in models with similar porosity. Mechanical compression tests were conducted via Finite Element Analysis, while the permeability performance of configurations with similar porosities (50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%) was evaluated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The mechanical results revealed that the structural strength decreased with increasing porosity. Since their higher specific surface area causes lower pressure drops, the second group exhibits better permeability. In addition, it was found that to evaluate the wall shear stresses occurring on the scaffold surfaces properly, it is essential to consider the stress distributions within the scaffold rather than the maximum values.