Introduction: The aims of this study were to evaluate condylar and ramal mandibular vertical asymmetry in a patient group affected by unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral (BCLP) cleft lip and palate, and to compare the findings with a well-matched control group with normal occlusion. Methods: The study groups included 20 UCLP patients (12 male, 8 female), 21 BCLP patients (12 male, 9 female), and a control group of 21 subjects with normal occlusion (10 male, 11 female). Measurements of condylar, ramal, and condylar plus ramal heights and asymmetry indexes were examined on cone-beam computed tomography images. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine potential statistical differences among the groups for condylar, ramal, and condylar plus ramal asymmetry index measurements. The post-hoc Tukey HSD test was used to determine individual differences. Results: No investigated group showed a statistically significant sex difference for any asymmetry index (P = 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the normal and cleft sides in the ramal height and ramal plus condylar height measurements in the UCLP group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.006, respectively). The Tukey HSD test showed a statistically significant difference between the UCLP and BCLP groups in terms of ramal asymmetry index values (P = 0.018). Conclusions: The ramal height and ramal plus condylar height measurements were significantly lower in the cleft side in the UCLP patients, and there was a statistically significant difference in ramal asymmetry index values between the patients affected by UCLP and BCLP.