Primula vulgaris belongs to the genus Primula and this genus is frequently used in traditional medicine. Numerous studies reported the antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of various extracts of different Primula species but, there were limited studies of the antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of P. vulgaris. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties and cytotoxic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of leaves of P. vulgaris. The total polyphenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and reducing antioxidant power of extract were evaluated using spectrophotometric procedures. The cytotoxic effects of extract were revealed on human lung (A549), liver (HepG2), breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3), and colon (WiDr) cancer cell lines and normal fibroblast cells using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. TPC and FRAP values were 1890.1 +/- 11.2 mg gallic acid equivalents and 3233.1 +/- 176.2 mg trolox equivalents per 100 g sample, respectively. The extract showed selective cytotoxic effects on all studied cancer cell lines compared to normal fibroblast cells and IC50 values ranged from 133.3-253.8 mu g/mL. This is the first study to reveal the antioxidant properties of P. vulgaris leaf extract and its cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines. Further studies are now needed to identify the antioxidant and cytotoxic molecules in the extract and their mechanisms.