The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of moisture content of the mat, amount of resin, wood dust usage, and press time on the physical (thickness swelling) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond strength) properties, and surface roughness of particleboard. Average roughness (R-a), mean peak-to-valley height (R-z), and maximum roughness (R-y) were used to evaluate quantitatively surface characteristics of the specimens. It was found that statistically (p < 0.05) significant. difference existed between the values of all properties of the panels. While the wood dust usage of up to 20% improved the surface smoothness, surface roughness was increased with the dust usage above 20%. The moisture content of the mat, dust usage, amount of resin, and press time affected the physical and mechanical properties, and surface roughness of particleboard, significantly. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.