Testing a Bus-Differential Protection for Buses Interconnecting Battery Storage Systems

Saleh S. A., ÖZKOP E., Mardegan C. S., Valdes M. E.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, vol.57, no.4, pp.3511-3521, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 57 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/tia.2021.3079376
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.3511-3521
  • Keywords: Bus-differential protection (BDP), current transformers (CTs), current transformer saturation, grid-connected battery storage units, instantaneous apparent power, power system protection
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This article presents the implementation and performance testing of a bus-differential protection for buses, which interconnect battery storage systems (BSSs). The proposed bus-differential protection is based on employing the alpha beta 0 components of the apparent powers flowing in all branches of the protected bus. The alpha beta 0 components of the apparent powers are employed due to their ability to accommodate changes in the power flow direction in the branches connected to the protected bus. The apparent powers are determined using the measured voltage and currents in all branches connected to the protected bus. The proposed alpha beta 0-based bus-differential protection is implemented and tested for internal and external faults, which are created during the charging and discharging of BSSs. Test results demonstrate the ability of the proposed alpha beta 0-based bus-differential protection to initiate fast, accurate, and reliable responses to internal and external faults in the protected bus. Observed response features of the proposed protection are found to have minor sensitivity to the mode of operation of the BSS (charging and discharging), fault location (internal and external), and/or fault type.