The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that exist all over the world. It is also very destructive in Turkey on various agricultural products. In this study, we have detected an alphabaculovirus from Helicoverpa armigera larvae collected from cotton field. The virus isolate was named as Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV-O1) based on morphological and molecular properties. This is the first record of baculovirus from H. armigera in Eurasia region. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs) showed their irregular morphology with average diameter of 0.85 to 1.25 mu m. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the nucleocapsids were multiple enveloped and bacilliform shaped. The size of nucleocapsid was found as 279 nm with a width of 56 nm. Digestion of viral genome by PstI generated 8 fragments with total size of 130.9 kbp. According to the phylogenetic analysis of the partial polyhedrin (polh), late expression factor 8 (lef8) and late expression factor 9 (lef9) genes, HearNPV-O1 isolate is very close to H. armigera MNPV Indian isolate-443. Five different concentrations of HearNPV-O1 between 10(3) and 10(7) were used in dose-response test on neonate, 3rd and 5th instars larvae of H. armigera. The highest dose (10(7)) showed 92%, 88% and 57% mortality, respectively within 14 days. LC50 values of HearNPV-O1 isolate were calculated as 6 x 10(4), 7 x 10(4) and 8 x 10(6) PIBs/mL(-1) against neonate, 3rd and 5th instars larval stages, respectively. These results demonstrate that HearNPV-O1 isolate may be a potential biocontrol agent to be utilized against H. armigera.