In this research, bycatch rates of industrial and artisanal fishing gears were determined for the Turkish Black Sea fisheries. Surveys were conducted in 9 major fishing locations along the Black Sea coast (from Istanbul to Artvin) between December 2008 and December 2011. Data provided from to the fishing operations have shown that bycatch rates as the proportion of bycatch weight to total catch weight were calculated as 30% for gill nets, 37% for purse seines, 62% for trawls and 19% for hydraulic dredges. Bycatch rates in number of fish basis were also detected as 34% for gill nets, 11% for purse seines, 62% for trawls and 23% for hydraulic dredges. All figures indicate that there is rather high impact of fishing gears on exploited stocks causing growth and recruitment overfishing. It is very important to reduce bycatch rates for sustainable fisheries by using more selective fishing methods. As a result of the comprehensive surveys, some practical management advices was provided for the fisheries management authority in order to increase selectivity of the gears and reduce bycatch rates for the sustainable of the living resources in the Black Sea.