Antibiotic resistance and the presence of resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated in the bacteria isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from different trout farms located in Turkey. The most frequent types of antibiotic resistance were towards beta-lactams (cephalothin [70% of bacterial isolates], amoxicillin [63%], ampicillin [62%], ticarcillin [56%], aztreonam [51%]), macrolide [erythromycin, 68%] and sulphonamide [sulphamethoxazole, 51%]. Of bacterial isolates, 51% were multiple drug resistant (MDR), while 35% of the isolates were extensively drug resistant (XDR). None of isolates were pandrug resistant (PDR). The most common ARGs were ampC (36%) and sul1 (24%). The class 1 integron gene cassette was detected in 51% of the bacteria. There was a strong positive correlation between the antibiotic resistance rate and the presence of ARGs (r(2) = .932). Gene encodes bla(CTX-M1), one of the extended spectrum beta-lactamase enzymes, was first described in Aeromonas caviae, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas luteola and Burkholderia cepacia. It was determined that 35% of the bacteria harboured at least one plasmid. Plasmid-mediated ARGs were identified to be tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD), sulphonamides (sul1, sul3) and beta lactams (ampC, bla(pse)). Thus, results suggest that ARG contamination situation deliberates resistance to tetracycline, aminoglycoside, chloramphenicol and sulphonamide. Therefore, the presence and activity of ARGs in fish and in environmental bacteria may play an important role in the spread of resistance genes among bacteria by transposition or integron gene cassettes.