Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of astaxanthin (ASX) on testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) damage in rats in terms of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Methods Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups with six rats in each group: control, T/D and T/D + 20 mg/kg ASX. Torsion and detorsion times were applied as 4 h and 2 h, respectively. ASX application was performed 30 minutes before detorsion. At the end of the period, testicular tissues were removed and biochemical and histological analyzes were performed. To evaluate the degree of oxidative stress, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined using colorimetric methods, while tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined using ELISA kit. To evaluate the degree of ER stress, tissue glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) levels were determined using ELISA kits. Johnsen's testicle scoring system was used for histological evaluation. Results In the T/D group, it is determined that statistically significant decreasing in TAS, SOD levels and Johnsen score, and increasing in TOS, OSI, MDA, GRP78, ATF6 and CHOP levels (p < 0.001) compared with control group. ASX administration statistically significantly restored this T/D-induced damage (p < 0.01). Conclusion This is the first study to show that ASX prevent T/D-induced testicular damage through its antioxidant activity. More comprehensive studies are needed to see the underlying mechanisms.