Perspective on Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and New Treatment Options


ULUSOY Ş. , Özkan G., Alkanat M., Mungan S. , YULUĞ E. , ÖREM A.

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NEPHROLOGY, vol.38, no.5, pp.368-378, 2013 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 38 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1159/000355537
  • Title of Journal : AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NEPHROLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.368-378

Abstract

Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the role of caspase-dependent apoptosis, caspase 1, calpain 1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in the development of rhabdonnyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Materials and Methods: Twenty-one rats were divided into 3 groups control, rhabdomyolysis and rhabdomyolysis + GSPE. Rhabdomyolysis was induced in the rhabdomyolysis and rhabdomyolysis + GSPE groups with the injection into both hind limbs of 10 ml/kg hypertonic (50%) glycerol following 24-hour dehydration on the 6th day. The rhabdomyolysis + GSPE group was given GSPE at 100 mg/kg by gavage for 7 days. The experiment was concluded 48 h after glycerol injection. Blood specimens were collected, and kidney tissues were extracted for histopathological examination. Results: We identified an increase in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, histopathological score, iNOS, caspase 3, caspase 1 and calpain 1 expression in the rhabdomyolysis group compared to the controls and a decrease in eNOS expression. In the rhabdomyolysis + GSPE group, however, there was a decrease in these mediators, together with an increase in eNOS expression. Conclusion:This study shows for the first time in the literature that calpain 1 is involved in the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI, and that GSPE may have a renoprotective effect. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel