The number of studies conducted on the subject of cigarette smoking habits in Turkish society in general is limited. This study presents data regarding the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. This cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2003 and March 2005 in the provinces of Trabzon, Giresun, Rize, Artvin and Gumushane in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The research was conducted in the provincial capitals and districts. According to the 2000 general census, a total of 459.021 people live in these areas, and 6103 individuals were enrolled in the study, selected to be representative of gender, age groups and settlement locations. Data regarding cigarette smoking were obtained using questions employed by the World Health Organization and the British Health Protection Agency. Daily smoking prevalence (at least one cigarette smoked per day) of 18.3% was determined in women and 50.7% in men, while weekly smoking prevalence (less than one cigarette a day but at least one a week) was determined as 1.3% in men and women. It was also determined that 8.4% of women and 18% of men had quit smoking; 69.7% of women and 27.9% of men stated that they had never smoked in their lives. The difference between men and women in terms of smoking prevalence was statistically significant (p< 0.0005). The highest prevalence was in the 20-29 age group in women (23.3%) and in the 30-39 age-group in men (59.9%). In addition, significantly high levels were determined in high school graduates (46.3%, p< 0.0005), unmarried subjects (41%, p< 0.0005) and in the retired (53.7%, p< 0.0005). Cigarette smoking levels continue to represent a major public health problem in the Eastern Black Sea Region.