In the present work, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for predicting the effects of some production factors such as adhesive ratio, press pressure and time, and wood density and moisture content on some physical properties of oriented strand board (OSB) such as moisture absorption, thickness swelling and thermal conductivity. The MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox was used for the training and optimization of the artificial neural network. The ANN model having the best prediction performance was determined by means of statistical and graphical comparisons. The results show that the prediction model is a useful, reliable and quite effective tool for predicting some physical properties of the OSB produced under different manufacturing conditions. Thus, this study has presented a novel and alternative approach to the literature to optimize process parameters in OSB manufacturing process.