In the traditional design process, the design starts with preliminary dimensions that may change by using engineering intuition after unfulfillment of necessary design conditions. By this way, the design is renewed with the new dimensions determined. In this process, when designing a structure that provides enough durability, stability, ductility and stiffness, the design is not going to go beyond trial-and-error especially for a more economical structure. However, the ever-decreasing supply of resources and the increase in environmental pollution require the structures to be designed with minimum cost or emission. The main purpose of this study is to perform minimum cost or CO2 emission design of a reinforced concrete console retaining wall with a key section at the bottom by using JAYA algorithm. There are 12 design variables utilized in this optimization process. The design variables are related to the wall dimensions and reinforcement placed at the various regions of the wall. The design problem has a total of 25 constraints that are related with the slip, overturning, bearing capacity and overall dimensions of the wall, dimension check of the cross section and the amount of reinforcement. In the optimum design of the numerical example given in this study, the effect of the magnitude of the surcharge load and the effect of the parameters of the soil behind the wall on the minimum cost and CO2 emission design of the wall is investigated.