Prospective Cohort Study of Incidence and Risk Factors for Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections in 212 Intensive Care Units of Nine Middle Eastern Countries

Jin Z., Yin R., Brown E. C., Shukla B., Lee B. H., Abdulaziz-Alkhawaja S., ...More

Oman Medical Journal, vol.38, no.6, pp.84-91, 2023 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 38 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.5001/omj.2023.121
  • Journal Name: Oman Medical Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.84-91
  • Keywords: Incidence, Intensive Care, Middle East, Risk Factors, Urinary Tract Infections
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives: To identify urinary catheter (UC)-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) incidence and risk factors (RF) in nine Middle Eastern countries. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study between 1 January 2014 and 2 December 2022 in 212 intensive care units (ICUs) of 67 hospitals in 38 cities in nine Middle Eastern countries (Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and the UAE). To estimate CAUTI incidence, we used the number of UC days as denominator and the number of CAUTIs as numerator. To estimate CAUTI RFs, we analyzed the following 10 variables using multiple logistic regression: patient sex, age, length of stay (LOS) before CAUTI acquisition, UC-days before CAUTI acquisition, UC-device utilization (DU) ratio, hospitalization type, ICU type, facility-ownership, country income level classified by World Bank, and time period. Results: Among 50 637 patients hospitalized for 434 523 patient days, there were 580 cases of acquired CAUTIs. The pooled CAUTI rate per 1000 UC days was 1.84. The following variables were independently associated with CAUTI: age, rising risk 1.0% yearly (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.01–1.02; p < 0.0001); female sex (aOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09–1.56; p < 0.0001); LOS before CAUTI acquisition, rising risk 6.0% daily (aOR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.05–1.06; p < 0.0001); and UC/ DU ratio (aOR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.06–1.14; p < 0.0001). Patients from lower-middle-income countries (aOR = 4.11, 95% CI: 2.49–6.76; p < 0.0001) had a similar CAUTI risk to the upper-middle countries (aOR = 3.75, 95% CI: 1.83–7.68; p < 0.0001). The type of ICU with the highest risk for CAUTI was neurologic ICU (aOR = 27.35, 95% CI: 23.03–33.12; p < 0.0001), followed by medical ICU (aOR = 6.18, 95% CI: 2.07–18.53; p < 0.0001) when compared to cardiothoracic ICU. The periods 2014–2016 (aOR = 7.36, 95% CI: 5.48–23.96; p < 0.001) and 2017–2019 (aOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 3.46–15.61; p < 0.001) had a similar risk to each other, but a higher risk compared to 2020–2022. Conclusions: The following CAUTI RFs are unlikely to change: age, sex, ICU type, and country income level. Based on these findings, it is suggested to focus on reducing LOS, UC/DU ratio, and implementing evidence-based CAUTI prevention recommendations.