The combined application of rutin and silicon alleviates osmotic stress in maize seedlings by triggering accumulation of osmolytes and antioxidants’ defense mechanisms

Altansambar N., Sezgin Muslu A., KADIOĞLU A.

Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, vol.30, no.3, pp.513-525, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12298-024-01430-z
  • Journal Name: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.513-525
  • Keywords: Antioxidants, Gene expression, Osmolytes, Rutin, Silicon
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Silicon (Si) has been shown to improve plant defenses against a variety of stresses. However, how rutin (Rut) affects stress factors is yet to be fully explored. Moreover, their combined role in osmotic stress response remains unclear. The current study was performed to determine how the use of Rut and Si, both separately and in combination, improved the physiological resilience of maize seedlings to two levels of osmotic stress (induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000). We aimed to enhance osmotic stress tolerance with the simultaneous use of Rut and Si. First, we selected the best water status and the lowest membrane damage enhancing concentration of Rut (60 ppm) and Si (1 mM) to research their tolerance and resistance to osmotic stress (moderate: 10% PEG, severe: 15% PEG). The application of Rut and Si separately and together reduced oxidative stress by decreasing the reactive oxygen species and improved the relative water content, osmoprotectants (proline, total soluble sugar, and glycine-betaine), ascorbate level, and some antioxidant defense-related enzyme activities and their gene expression in maize seedlings under osmotic stress. However, these effects were more promising under moderate stress. As a result, findings from the study indicate the synergistic effect of combined Rut and Si on osmotic stress tolerance in maize seedlings. Overall, the combination of Rut and Si was more effective than independent Rut and Si in reducing osmotic stress in maize seedlings. Here, it was clear that Rut played an active role in alleviating stress. This combined application can be useful for developing drought tolerance in crops for the agriculture sector.