Chemical characterization of water and ethanolic extracts of Turkish propolis by HPLC-DAD and GC-MS

Bozkus T. N. , DEĞER O. , YAŞAR A.

JOURNAL OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY & RELATED TECHNOLOGIES, vol.44, no.1-2, pp.77-86, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 44 Issue: 1-2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10826076.2021.1883648
  • Page Numbers: pp.77-86
  • Keywords: Ethanolic extract of propolis, GC-MS, HPLC-DAD, polyphenols, water extract of propolis


This study aims to determine the qualitative and quantitative contents of Turkish propolis collected from various regions of Turkey using high-performance liquid chromatography with the diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in water and ethanolic extracts. In HPLC-DAD analyses, it was determined that water extract of Turkish propolis contains phenolic acids such as caffeic acid (204.00 mu g/mL), trans-cinnamic, chlorogenic, and caffeoylquinic acids, responsible for its antioxidant activity; whereas, the ethanolic extract of Turkish propolis contains chrysin (641.33 mu g/mL), caffeic acid phenethyl ester (630.67 mu g/mL), pinocembrin (572.67 mu g/mL), galangin (534.11 mu g/mL), naringenin (372.39 mu g/mL), and also kaempferol, trans-cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, myricetin, and quercetin. GC-MS analyses showed that ethanolic extract of propolis contains caffeic acid by Rtx-1 column and the water extract of propolis contains quinic acid and ferulic acid by Rtx-5ms column. Various sugar derivatives were detected by both columns in water and ethanolic extracts of Turkish propolis. HPLC-DAD can be considered as a more effective method than GC-MS for the chemical characterization of propolis. Water extract of Turkish propolis can be a good source of raw materials for various sectors, as it is both cheap and has less health risk than ethanolic extract, and is suitable for human use.