Hemodialysis (HD) adequacy requires monitoring in line with standards and at appropriate intervals. However, the use of inappropriate or incorrectly applied techniques in the determination of HD adequacy can lead to highly unfortunate results. This study was intended to identify the path to a solution by determining how far HD adequacy in HD centers in our region reflects reality. Three hundred and thirty HD patients from eight centers were included. On the first visit, predialysis and postdialysis blood collection with the centers' own methods being used were observed and errors were recorded. Kt/V1 was calculated from pre- and postdialysis blood specimens taken by the units themselves. On the second visit, one session later, pre- and postdialysis blood samples were collected in line with guidelines by ourselves, the authors, and Kt/V2 was calculated from these samples. The eight units' total Kt/V2 value was significantly lower compared with Kt/V1 (<0.0001). The level of patients in all centers with Kt/V1<1.2 was 13.5%, and that of patients with Kt/V2<1.2 was 22.1%. No center, apart from one unit, managed to complete the collection of blood specimens as recommended by the guidelines. With one exception, blood collection for HD adequacy was not performed using proper technique in any center. This simple but easily overlooked situation, HD being regarded as adequate though in fact it is not, may lead to patients not being treated effectively and accurately and to a rise in mortality and morbidity in the long term.