Assessment of the water quality using multivariate statistics and the water quality index: a case study of the Yağlıdere Stream (Giresun) in the Eastern Black Sea region, Turkey

Hatipoğlu Temizel E.

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol.195, no.12, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 195 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10661-023-12118-4
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the water quality of the Yaglidere Stream passing through Espiye (Giresun-NE Turkey) and Yaglidere districts, where old and new mining activities are present, was evaluated, and characterized by using the water quality index (WQI), multivariate statistical, and GIS techniques. The downstream aquifer of the Yaglidere Stream, which originates from Erimez Mountains and reaches the sea from the west of Espiye district, meets the domestic and drinking water needs of Yaglidere and Espiye districts. In addition, activities such as energy production and fish farming are carried out along the stream. Therefore, it is of great importance to investigate the water quality of the stream. In order to evaluate the water quality, 50 water samples were taken from 10 sampling points (5 periods) along the flow direction of the stream. Parameters other than T, DO, Mg, F, NH3, CN, and HS show significant spatial variations indicating the influence of geogenic and anthropogenic activities. Some of the investigated parameters (T, DO, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, NH3, CN, Fe, Se) exhibit important seasonal variations due to high seasonality in water temperature and water flow. Principal component analysis/factor analysis reveals that the parameters responsible for water quality changes in the Yaglidere Stream are mainly related to the geogenic structure, mining wastes, agricultural activities, and domestic wastes. According to the WQI values, the water samples taken from the upstream and middle part of the stream are in the water quality between "Excellent" and "Good", on the other hand, in the downstream regions where anthropogenic and geogenic effects are dominant, the water samples are in the quality of "Poor water" and "Unsuitable for drinking". The most effective water quality parameters on WQI are Al, Fe, and Mn and the water quality in the basin is negatively affected by geogenic and anthropogenic effects.