COVID-19 vaccine and immune response


Exploration of Immunology, vol.1, pp.341-355, 2021 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.37349/ei.2021.00023
  • Journal Name: Exploration of Immunology
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.341-355
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; βCoV), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causes severe lower respiratory tract infections and acute respiratory failure syndrome (ARDS). Deaths due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic for more than a year are still seen worldwide. Therefore, vaccine trials have gained importance. The discovery of the genome and protein structure of SARS-CoV-2 in a short time allowed the development of nucleic acid-based vaccines (mRNA and DNA vaccines), vector vaccines, inactivated virus vaccines, protein-based vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines, and live attenuated virus vaccines. Many companies, universities, and institutes around the world continue to develop effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. In this review, the structural features, classification, genome, and intracellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses, stimulation of the immune system and immunity, COVID-19 vaccine types, and the latest status of clinical trials of these vaccines have been reviewed.