Early onset multiple sclerosis and the effect of disease onset age on neurological disability in multiple sclerosis


Usta N. C., BOZ C., Terzi M.

Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol.224, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 224
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2022.107528
  • Journal Name: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: Adult onset multiple sclerosis, Early onset multiple sclerosis, Expanded disability status scale, Neurological disability in multiple sclerosis
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

© 2022 Elsevier B.V.Objectives: The incidence of early onset multiple sclerosis (EOMS) is increasing. We therefore aimed to compare the demographic, clinical, and magnetic resonance imaging features of early onset and adult onset multiple sclerosis patients. Furthermore, the effects of age of onset were evaluated for patients who reached an expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores of six. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study of MS patient medical charts between 1977 and 2021, which were registered in the MS database. Only patients with relapsing remitting MS longer than 1 year were included in the study. The patients included in the study were divided into the EOMS and adult onset MS (AOMS) groups. General demographic datas, clinical datas such as the characteristics of the first clinical period, the time between the first two attacks, the attack rate in the first 2 and 3 years, the treatment status, the EDSS at the first evaluation, the EDSS score at 6 month intervals, the time to reach an EDSS score of six, and magnetic resonance imaging features such brain and spinal T2 lesions were recorded. Results: Total of 3477 including 353 (10.2 %) EOMS and 3124 (89.8 %) AOMS patients were analyzed. There was no statistically significant difference in symptom patterns between the EOMS and AOMS groups ( p = 0.649). Supratentorial clinical features at first attack were more common in AOMS patients, while optic neuropathy at first attack was more common in EOMS patients. Using univariable analysis, clinical supratentorial features at first attack, clinical optic neuropathy at first attack, clinical spinal cord at fist attack, spinal cord lesions, first EDSS score, relapse in the first 3 years, and onset patterns in terms of age were found to be statistically significant risk factors. In multivariable-adjusted analysis, clinical supratentorial features at first attack, clinical spinal cord lesions at first attack, first EDSS scores relapses in the first 3 years, and onset patterns in terms of age were found to be independent risk factors for EDSS in reaching a score of six. Early treatment start was associated with reduced hazard rate of reaching an EDSS score of 6. Conclusion: Onset pattern in terms of age was an independent prognostic factor for neurological disabilities in MS patients.