This study aims to determine the diversity of culturable thermophilic bacteria isolated from eight terrestrial hot springs in Northeastern of Algeria using the conventional methods, SDS-PAGE fingerprinting of whole-cell proteins and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, their hydrolytic enzyme activities were also investigated. A total of 293 strains were isolated from the hot springs' water and sediment using different culture media. Overall, five distinct bacterial groups were characterized by whole-cell protein pattern analysis. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 100 selected strains, the isolates were assigned to the following three major phyla:Firmicutes(93%),Deinococcus-Thermus(5%), andActinobacteria(2%), which included 27 distinct species belonging to 12 different phylotypes,Aeribacillus,Aneurinibacillus,Anoxybacillus,Bacillus,Brevibacillus,Geobacillus,Laceyella,Meiothermus,Saccharomonospora,Thermoactinomyces,Thermobifida, andThermus. The screening for nine extracellular enzymes showed that 65.87% of the isolates presented at least five types of enzyme activities, and 6.48% of strains combined all tested enzymes (amylase, cellulase, pectinase, esculinase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, lecithinase, and nuclease).It was found thatBacillus,Anoxybacillus,Aeribacillus, andAneurinibacilluswere the genera showing the highest activities. Likewise, the study showed an abundant and diverse thermophilic community with novel taxa presenting a promising source of thermozymes with important biotechnological applications. This study showed that a combined identification method using SDS-PAGE profiles of whole-cell proteins and subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis could successfully differentiate thermophilic bacteria from Algerian hot springs.