Purpose We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of edaravone on radiation-induced ovarian damage in an experimental rat model. Methods Thirty-two Wistar albino female rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1: control, no treatment, and radiation was applied throughout the study; Group 2: sham, only radiation was applied; Group 3: 45 mg/kg edaravone and radiation were applied; Group 4: 450 mg/kg edaravone and radiation were applied. Edaravone was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before radiotherapy (5 Gy). Two days after radiation exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the ovaries were removed. Histologic changes under light microscopy and immunoreactivity for anti-caspase-3 were noted and compared between the four groups. Results There was a statistically significant difference in follicle counts, vascular congestion, edema, cytoplasmic vacuolization, hemorrhage, and interstitial cell degeneration between the groups. Radiation causes deterioration in most histopathological parameters. Administration of edaravone at different doses seems to reverse these alterations and alleviate the injury. Antioxidant defense mechanisms appear to be enhanced by edaravone as shown by histopathologically and decreased apoptosis by reducing the expression of anti-caspase-3 activity as demonstrated immunohistochemically. Conclusion This is the first study evaluating the protective effects of edaravone on radiation-induced ovarian damage. Edaravone decreased the follicular apoptosis and attenuates the radiation-induced ovarian damage in rats.