This paper presents a study of the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) for the prioritization of factors having important effects on the surface roughness of wood and wood-based materials in the planing process. Firstly, a three-level hierarchical model was devised. Secondly, the FAHP method was employed to determine the weights of the factors. Finally, the prioritization of the factors was carried out taking into account the weights. The results showed that the most significant factors are feed speed (0.300), tool geometry (0.222), and material defect (0.107). Consequently, this study provides a valuable guide to the wood industry to improve the surface quality of wood and wood-based products.