Effect of amniotic fluid on peri-implant capsular formation


AESTHETIC PLASTIC SURGERY, vol.29, no.3, pp.174-180, 2005 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00266-004-0135-0
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.174-180
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Although commonly used biomaterials are physically and chemically stable, nonimmunogenic, and nontoxic, implanted and blood-contact biomaterials trigger a wide variety of unwanted responses, including inflammation, thrombosis, infection, and fibrosis. Peri-implant fibrosis is the response most commonly seen by plastic surgeons. In this study, the authors hypothesized that as hyaluronic acid (HA) reduces scar formation by inhibiting the activity of mononuclear phagocytes and lymphocytes, human amniotic fluid (HAF), which contains high concentrations of HA, HA-stimulating activator (HASA), and other factors, might prevent the formation of fibrous capsules and capsule contracture when applied intraluminally. Two 1 x 1-cm silicone blocks were placed dorsally into separate surgically created pockets underneath the panniculus carnosus muscle, distant from the incisions, in each of the 10 rats in the study. At the time of implant insertion, 2 ml of HAF was instilled into the cranially located pockets in group 1, whereas 2 ml of saline solution was instilled into the caudally located pockets in group 2. After 6 months, intracapsular static and dynamic pressure measurements were made, and then all the peri-implant capsules were excised and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formaldehyde. The thicknesses of the capsules were measured in three different areas of each section, and a mean was calculated. Capsular firmness, according to the static and dynamic pressure readings, was significantly greater in the control group, which had saline solution introduced into the pocket, than in the treatment group, which had HAF used in the same manner. The mean total thickness of the capsules surrounding the implants was 876.7 mu m in the control group, as comparied with 466.8 mu m in the HAF-treated group. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Because of its ability to reduce capsular thickness and firmness and also because it can be stored in a freezer if it is prepared in a cell-free manner, HAF would appear to be a useful adjunct in the prevention of capsular contracture formation.