Russian Federation is the leading country which Turkey has the most trade deficit with. Is high amount of energy importation the only reason for the existing serious trade deficit with Russian Federation? What are the goods in bilateral trade Turkey has comparative advantage or disadvantage? This study investigates the answers to these questions, by using Revealed Comparative Advantage Index, Grubel Lloyd Index, and Export Similarity Index. According to the results of this study, foreign trade deficit of Turkey with Russian Federation mainly results from trade of "mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials" and "manufactured goods classified chiefly by material". It is noticed that while Turkey has comparative advantage on Russia Federation in machinery and transport equipment, miscellaneous manufactured articles, food and live animals, Russian Federation has a comparative advantage on Turkey in terms of mineral fuels, lubricants, and related materials. In addition, it is determined that the trade between two countries is mainly of inter-industry trade and the similarity in means of the exported goods groups is rather low.