This study aimed at determining the chemical composition of bio-oil from giant cane (Arundo donax L.), as well as its performance as a wood preservative. The performance was determined through water absorption, tangential swelling, and resistance to fungi and termites. Bio-oil was obtained by pyrolysis at 450 to 525 degrees C. The yield of liquid, char, and gas was determined to be 45, 30, and 25%, respectively. The most abundant chemical compounds found in the bio-oil were acids, ketones, furans, benzenes, phenols, sugars, and guaiacols. Scots pine sapwood was impregnated with the obtained bio-oil at concentrations of 10 and 20%. Additionally, treated samples were impregnated with epoxidized linseed oil to study its effect on bio-oil leachability. The retention of the giant cane bio-oil was in the range of 50 to 100 kg m(-3). Leached samples were exposed to white-and brown-rot fungi, according to European standard EN 113. Wood impregnated with only cane oil demonstrated a durability that classifies the treatment as very effective (mass loss less than 3%). Epoxidized linseed oil treatment significantly reduced water absorption of the treated samples with bio-oil and further improved the durability. A termite test showed that bio-oil was also effective against Reticulitermes flavipes.