Effect of using white noise, embracing and facilitated tucking on pain during heel lance blood sampling in newborns

Ayar A. C., KAHRİMAN İ., Alemdar D. K., Ozoran Y.

EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND CARE, vol.193, no.4, pp.547-558, 2023 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 193 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/03004430.2022.2117312
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ASSIA, IBZ Online, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Child Development & Adolescent Studies, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.547-558
  • Keywords: Newborn, heel lance, non-pharmacologic methods, pain management, TO-SKIN CONTACT, PRETERM INFANTS, REDUCE PAIN, EFFICACY, STICK
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study aimed to compare the effect of using white noise, embracing, and facilitated tucking on heel lance blood sampling in newborns. The study was a randomized controlled trial. Newborns totalling 160 were included in the study. The primary outcomes were evaluated pain and crying durations before, during, and after the procedure. The secondary outcomes were evaluated as physiological changes before, during, and after the procedure. The crying durations during and after the heel lance blood sampling were found significantly lower in the newborns in the embracing group compared to those in the other groups (p < 0.05). The average NIPS score of the newborns who were embraced by their mothers during (3.67 +/- 2.76) and after (1.55 +/- 2.6) heel lance blood sampling was found significantly lower than the other groups (p < 0.05). Maternal embracing during and after the heel lance blood sampling procedure may be effective in reducing crying duration and pain level in newborns.