In this study, the cotton carpel-based particleboards were produced from the chips of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) by using urea-fonnaldehyde (UF) and melamine urea-formaldehyde (MUF) adhesives. The chemical composition of cotton carpels and various mechanical and physical properties of cotton carpel-based particleboards were investigated. In producing particleboards, having minimum physical and mechanical properties as required in the conventional standards for general purpose particleboards, the optimum pressure time and density were found to be 5 min and about 0.7 g/cm(3), respectively. The MUF-bonded particleboards with a density of about 0.7 g/cm(3) resulted in better physical and mechanical properties than LTF-bonded ones. In general, with the exception of perpendicular screw-holding strength, all the studied properties (i.e., bending strength, 113, lateral screw-holding strength and Janka hardness) of the cotton carpel-based particleboards nearly met the minimum requirements for general grade particleboards. Furthermore, the additional studies are required to improve the properties, especially physical, of cotton carpel-based particleboards. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.