Investigation of pollution levels originated from anthropogenic gadolinium in Ankara Stream

ALKAN A., ALKAN N., Yanar B.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.27, no.19, pp.23677-23685, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 19
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-020-08702-7
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.23677-23685
  • Keywords: Gadolinium anomaly, Urban effluents, Surface water, Waste water, Stream sediment, RARE-EARTH-ELEMENTS, SURFACE-WATER, RHINE RIVER, COASTAL WATERS, TAP WATER, LANTHANUM, SAMARIUM, SEAWATER, BEHAVIOR, DELTA
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Research on pollution caused by gadolinium (Gd) based on compounds as a result of its use in high technological applications, especially in the health sector, has recently become very interesting. This study aims to investigate the determination of the environmental pollution levels of anthropogenic Gd and its possibility of use as an anthropogenic pollutant indicator in the Ankara Stream (Turkey) selected as the pilot stream. Within the scope of the research, Gd levels were determined in water and sediment samples taken in spring and autumn periods in a total of seven different stations, three of which in Ankara Stream and one for each in its tributaries (cubuk Stream, Hatip Stream, Incesu Creek, Ova Stream). Some parameters related to water and sediment quality were also measured at the stations. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen were measured in situ. Gd concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique using samples filtered from 0.45-mu m filters at the time of sampling in water samples. The grain sizes of sediment samples were carried out by conventional wet sieve analysis. Gd levels were determined by ICP-MS after digestion of sediment samples passing through 63-mu m particle grain size. Also, total organic carbon (TOC) and total phosphorus (TP) levels were measured by classical methods in sediment samples. Although the Gd concentrations measured in the water samples taken from the stations in the Ankara Stream were found to be quite high compared with the tributaries of Ankara Stream. The highest mean Gd concentration (0.347 +/- 0.057 mu g/L) measured in this study was higher than that of at the most rivers in the world. There was no statistically significant difference between the stations in terms of Gd concentrations in the sediment samples. As a result of this study, it was revealed that Gd can be used as an indicator parameter in the monitoring of anthropogenic pollution of aquatic environment where potential Gd pollution sources.