The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Den. and Schiff.) is one of the most harmful insect pest for pine species in Mediterranean countries including Turkey. The objective of the present study is to find a more effective and safe biological control agent against T. pityocampa. Thus, we investigated the bacterial flora of the pest insect, collected from the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey from 2003 to 2004. Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular methods, 14 different bacterial isolates were determined. The identified bacterial flora of T. pityocampa consisted of bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae (Tp1), Arthrobacter sp. (Tp2), Staphylococcus spp. (Tp3 and 10), Bacillus subtilis (Tp4), Serratia liquefaciens (Tp5), Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (Tp6 and 14), an acrystalliferous form Bacillus thuringiensis (Tp7), Staphylococcus cohnii (Tp8), Bacillus licheniformis (Tp9), Bacillus pumilus (Tp11), Brevibacterium sp. (Tp12) and Bacillus simplex (Tp13). After analysing the conclusions of conventional and molecular tests Tp1 (Enterobacteriaceae), Tp2 (Arthrobacter sp.) and Tp12 (Brevibacterium sp.) were assigned as novel bacterial species. Isolate Tp5 had a promising insecticidal effect on third instar larvae of T. pityocampa (up to 70% mortality within 10 days).