A Safety Investigation of Damaged Retaining Walls


The Seventeenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Lizbon, Portugal, 1 - 07 July 2007, pp.3706-3712

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • City: Lizbon
  • Country: Portugal
  • Page Numbers: pp.3706-3712
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The paper presents an investigation of the safety for the damaged retaining walls in the East Karadeniz Region of Turkey. For this purpose, a damaged retaining wall is selected as an example. Its safety is obtained by using both classical and probability approaches. In the classical approach, the safety is determined against the overturning, sliding and bearing capacity using the safety factors of 2 for overturning and 1.5 for sliding. The soil safety strength is taken to be 300 kPa for the bearing capacity analysis. To obtain the safety of the retaining wall by probabilistic approach, the FORM/SORM and Monte Carlo analysis are used with performance functions for overturning, sliding and bearing capacity. The safety criterion is considered as the reliability index of 3.71. The comparison of the safety obtained from classical and probability approaches shows that uncertainties in the limit state functions of the retaining wall affect the results considerably. It is observed from the results that, although the wall is safe according to the classical analysis, it becomes unsafe according to the reliability analysis. As a part of the study the sensitivity analysis is also carried out to identify the most important uncertainty variables in the reliability analysis. It is obtained that angle of the internal friction has an important role in the wall-safety.