Comparison of the effects of axillary brachial plexus block, inhalation anesthesia, and total intravenous anesthesia on tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury in upper extremity surgery

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Akdoğan A., Ertürk E., Kutanis D., Beşir A., Altınbaş A., Örem A., ...More

Turkish Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, vol.30, no.7, pp.510-517, 2024 (SCI-Expanded)


BACKGROUND: Post-ischemia reperfusion can lead to oxidative stress and an increase in oxidative markers. Employing preventive strategies and antioxidant agents may help mitigate ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The use of a tourniquet in extremity surgery has been associated with IRI. This study aims to investigate the impact of three different approaches— brachial plexus block, total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), and inhalation anesthesia—on IRI during upper extremity surgery using a tourniquet.

METHODS: Patients aged 18 to 45 with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I-II scores were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group A received an axillary block with bupivacaine; Group I underwent inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane; and Group T received TIVA with propofol and remifentanil infusion. Blood samples were collected to measure glucose, lactate, total anti-oxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels at various time points: before anesthesia (t1), 1 minute before tourniquet release (t2), 20 minutes after tourniquet release (t3), and 4 hours after tourniquet release (t4).

RESULTS: In Group I, lactate levels at t3, and glucose levels at t2 and t3, were higher compared to the other groups. Group A exhibited lower IMA levels at t2, t3, and t4 than the other groups. Additionally, Group I had lower IMA levels at t2, t3, and t4 compared to Group T. TAS levels were higher in Group I at t2, t3, and t4 compared to the other groups. TOS levels at t2 and t3 were lower in Group A than in Group I.

CONCLUSION: Axillary anesthesia results in a sympathetic block, promoting better perfusion of the upper extremity. This study demonstrated lower levels of oxidative stress markers with axillary plexus block. Therefore, these results suggest that the axillary block has the potential to mitigate IRI.