Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Since 1990, energy consumption has increased at an annual average rate of 4.3%. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have grown along with its energy consumption. Emissions in 2004 reached 193 million tons. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). State emissions are significant on a global scale. CO2 and carbon monoxide (CO) are the main GHGs associated with global warming. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of the world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx contribute to acid rain. Carbon assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control CO2 emissions while raising revenue. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.