Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics of the Ilica geothermal system (Erzurum, Turkey)

Ersoy A., SONMEZ S. C.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.72, no.11, pp.4451-4462, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 72 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-014-3345-z
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.4451-4462
  • Keywords: Geothermal system, Hydrogeochemistry, Environmental isotopes, Geothermometry, Ilica thermal waters, WATERS, AREA
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this paper, the hydrochemical isotopic characteristics of samples collected from geothermal springs in the Ilica geothermal field, Eastern Anatolia of Turkey, are examined and described. Low-temperature geothermal system of Ilica (Erzurum, Turkey) located along the Eastern Anatolian fault zone was investigated for hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics. The study of ionic and isotopic contents shows that the thermal water of Ilica is mainly, locally fed by groundwater, which changes chemically and isotopically during its circulation within the major fault zone reaching depths. The thermal spring has a temperature of 29-39 A degrees C, with electrical conductivity ranging from 4,000 to 7,510 A mu S/cm and the thermal water is of Na-HCO3-Cl water type. The chemical geothermometers applied in the Ilica geothermal waters yielded a maximum reservoir temperature of 142 A degrees C according to the silica geothermometers. The thermal waters are undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and halite, and oversaturated with respect to dolomite. The dolomite mineral possibly caused scaling when obtaining the thermal waters in the study area. According to the enthalpy chloride-mixing model, cold water to the thermal water-mixing ratio is changing between 69.8 and 75 %. The delta O-18-delta H-2 compositions obviously indicate meteoric origin of the waters. Thermal water springs derived from continental precipitation falling on to higher elevations in the study area. The delta C-13 ratio for dissolved inorganic carbonate in the waters lies between 4.63 and 6.48 aEuro degrees. In low-temperature waters carbon is considered as originating from volcanic (mantle) CO2.