Background & aims: Intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition may cause different metabolic responses and immune effects in critically ill patients with sepsis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different lipid emulsions on changes in concentrations of adipokine and cytokine and their relationship with mortality in patients. Methods: Patients enrolled in this prospective, single-center, observational cohort study, were estimated to require more than ten days of parenteral nutrition. They were treated with soybean oil-based or olive oil-based parenteral lipid emulsions. Adipokine and cytokine concentrations of septic patients were determined at enrollment and ten days after, in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of SEPSIS-3. The concentrations levels were measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mortality was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regressions. Results: Over a 25-month period, 145 patients were assessed for eligibility and consequently, 40 patients were analyzed. On admission, both groups had comparable physiological scores, comorbidities, malnutrition risk, anthropometric measurements, metabolic/hematologic biomarkers and concentrations of adipokines and cytokines (p > .05). Serum leptin, resistin, and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-1b and TNF-a) decreased significantly in the entire cohort over ten days following sepsis (p < .05). Serum resistin decreased in both olive oil-based and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions groups. Serum adiponectin only decreased in soybean oil-based lipid emulsions group (p < .05). There was association between survival and percentage changes in adiponectin, resistin and visfatin concentrations (log rank test: p < .05). Conclusion: Adipokine and cytokine responses are affected by medical nutritional therapy in the sepsis process and adipokines may represent functional prognostic biomarkers in critically ill patients with sepsis. (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.