This study aimed to examine the amount of apically extruded debris and time during retreatment with five current file systems, which exhibit various kinematic movements. One hundred upper central incisors were shaped with manual files and filled using the thermoplastic injection method. The root canal fillings in each group (n = 20) were removed using the Genius (GN), ProTaper Next (PTN), Reciproc (RCP) Blue, Tango-Endo (TE) and Twisted File Adaptive (TFA) file systems. The apically extruded debris was collected in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. Time to reach working length and total time were also recorded. The PTN, RCP Blue and TFA instruments caused significantly less apically extruded debris and shorter total retreatment time than the GN and TE file systems (p < 0.05). The time to reach the working length was the shortest in the PTN group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). All file systems extruded debris while removing the root canal filling.