Interactions between exhaled CO, smoking status and nicotine dependency in a sample of Turkish adolescents

VANÇELİK S., BEYHUN N. E., Acemoǧlu H.

Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, vol.51, no.1, pp.56-64, 2009 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 51 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Journal Name: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.56-64
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: No


The aim of this study was to show the interactions between nicotine dependency, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and smoking status including environmental passive tobacco smoke exposure in a sample of Turkish adolescents. This study was a cross-sectional research conducted among high school students of Erzurum province (n=536). The level of exhaled CO of all participants who accepted to participate in the study was measured by Microbio CO Analyzer (Microbio Med). Nicotine dependency was measured by a six-item version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. Mean age of the adolescents was 17.0±1.6 (median: 17) and 77.1% were male. Of the study population, 30.2% and 11.4% of the students were regular and occasional smokers, respectively. Non-smokers who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke had significantly (p<0.01) higher exhaled CO levels (2.8±2.6 ppm) than not-exposed non- smokers (1.8±1.9 ppm). Only 8.6% of adolescents who reported themselves to be a regular smoker had 7 ppm and higher exhaled CO. There was a statistically significant and positive correlation between exhaled CO levels and nicotine dependency after controlling for environmental tobacco smoke exposure and cigarettes per day (partial correlation, r=0.334, p=0.004). Exhaled CO can be used as a predictor of smoking status and environmental tobacco smoke exposure and an indicator of nicotine dependency in adolescents.